(16) Since ANSI and ISO have adopted SQL as the standard language for database access, explore via the Internet the history and features of SQL and its appropriateness for database access. Write a summary of your findings?

QUESTION: Since ANSI and ISO have adopted SQL as the standard language for database access, explore via the Internet the history and features of SQL and its appropriateness for database access. Write a summary of your findings?   [signinlocker] SOLUTION Some examples of Internet sources are: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQL https://www.quora.com/What-is-SQL-and-why-is-it-important https://www.guru99.com/introduction-to-database-sql.html https://www.techopedia.com/definition/1243/sql-server [/signinlocker]

(13) Define data independence?

QUESTION: Define data independence?   [signinlocker] SOLUTION Data independence occurs as a result of the conceptual schema insulating user views (i.e., the external schema) from changes in the physical storage structure of the data in the internal schema. This is also known as physical data independence. [/signinlocker]

(7) What is the purpose of an external index?

Question: What is the purpose of an external index?   [signinlocker] SOLUTION An external index allows data to be accessed in a logical order that differs from the physical order in which it is stored. [/signinlocker]

(5) Identify a common task in a payroll system for which sequential access is more appropriate than direct access, and explain why this is so?

QUESTION: Identify a common task in a payroll system for which sequential access is more appropriate than direct access, and explain why this is so?   [signinlocker] SOLUTION Printing monthly (weekly, bi-weekly) payroll checks is the classic example since typically, virtually every employee receives a monthly (weekly, bi-weekly) payroll check. [/signinlocker]